Raj, P. Solomon - by B.S. Moses Kumar 2
Biblia Pauperum: An Experiment of Modern Times!
(An Analytical Commentary on the Work of P. Solomon Raj)
by B. S. Moses Kumar, Ph.D.
This is ‘The story of the 15th Century Block Book’ brought alive ‘With recent block prints and text’ by Dr. P. Solomon Raj. A medieval necessity had become a modern challenge and adaptation in the hands of this Indian artist-theologian of our times. Pulidindi Solomon Raj hailed from a rural pedigree but in Divine Providence had attained global reputation through his simple tools – a pen and a paintbrush! Ever since I wrote my essays on couple of his works, which were published at the website – https://www.artway.eu, my desire was to write on his third important work, Biblia Pauperum as well. When Solomon published this work in 2008, the pictures were made as wood block prints in black and white. As he was later making these woodblock prints in color, I had to wait indefinitely, and again it was an ambitious project to obtain all the thirty works in color. I was successful in collecting twenty-nine pictures in color from the hands of Solomon Raj at different times on my frequent visits to his Ashram. For want of one, I was not able to accomplish my project when he was alive. At last, having obtained the missing work (the New Testament antitype of the fourth work) from the internet, I now venture to write this analytical commentary on this unique work of our times.
The twenty-nine wood-block color prints in original are kept in the archives at Hyderabad Bible College. The present work is dedicated now to all the ardent lovers of P. Solomon Raj, and his art at his birth centenary celebration. Commemorating this milestone, Dr. PSR Wing is inaugurated at the above Library, housing the volumes from the artist’s personal library. Copies of all the thirty works in threes are framed and kept on permanent display in the Library Hall, and they are reproduced in the body of this essay, to aid ready reference for the reader.
A) Background and Formative Impact
Couple of hesitations lingered in the mind of Raj when he was about to take up this work: as to how many pictures he had to make – 40 pages with 120 pictures as in the 15th century block book? And then, how many readers will be interested and who will publish such a work. However, the ‘pedagogical message’ of the medieval Biblia Pauperum appealed to his artistic bent of mind, without counting the copies produced. With no anticipation for popularity, Raj was committed to this venture, and faithfully accomplished his artistic desire: “I do not expect a great popularity or circulation for this book. But having laid my hand to the plough, I did not want to look back . . . Though this book may not reach many people, I hope that it will appeal to some artists and art lovers.”
As Solomon Raj rightly said, this book may not have reached many people: It is not known how many copies were printed in the first run, and to my knowledge, there is no indication of a reprint. Even if the book reached many, as many as the copies of the first print, none of the reader has the opportunity to see Solomon’s wood block prints in color, as individual color prints were done by Solomon much later. Anyway, twelve years after the publication, for the first time now, the ten triptychs of Solomon’s Biblia Pauperum appear in color in this on-line publication at www.artway.eu.
Solomon recounts how he got the inspiration for launching this challenging task in his late eighties: Hans Ruedi Weber invited Solomon Raj to do a communications seminar with him in Helsinki, celebrating the 300 Years Jubilee of the Finish Bible translation. During the workshop, Dr. Weber, "talking about communication with pictures, commented on my work with woodcuts and said that they reminded one of the Biblia Pauperum of the Middle Ages. This started a new fire in my heart and I made a little deeper study of the subject of the so-called block books and succeeded to produce my own small Biblia Pauperum with my sets of woodcuts and linocuts.”
Thus at 86, Solomon Raj began a new creative venture, taking the Biblia Pauperum, the Bible of the Poor, a work known since the Middle Ages and re-imagining it as a teaching tool for Indian audiences and anyone else who has "eyes to see."
Something about Triptych, before we go further into this work. A triptych is a work of art (usually a panel painting) that is divided into three sections, or three carved panels that are hinged together and can be folded, shut or displayed open. The middle panel is typically the largest, although there are triptychs of equal-sized panels. Though not done on wooden panels in the manner of icons, the works in Biblia Pauperum may be called triptychs, in that they are three equal-sized pieces of art with a corresponding theme. Apart from individual works on triptychs, Biblia Pauperum is the supreme example of a collection of Triptychs, of course done with wood block prints in black and white. Solomon later colored each of the individual pieces, and for the first time they were all reproduced here in triptych-format, facilitating ready reference for the reader. All the ten triptychs of this series in color are on permanent display at Hyderabad Bible College, India, unveiled on the birth centenary of the artist, Dr. P. Solomon Raj.
As was his practice from the start of his career as an artist - writing his first meditative impressions in simple verse on each of his work - we find verse, his own initial reflections, with each of the ten works in Biblia Pauperum. But this exercise here obviously had been complex, since each work is a combination of three individual works – the New Testament theme in the center as antitype, and couple of pictures either side on similar theme from the Old Testament as types. As a common theme runs through the types and the antitype, it was not a daunting task, but we find some overlook in the comprehensive verse in limited lines. Anyway, the artist’s effort to adorn each work with his usual reflective verse commends appreciation.
In relation to the characteristic feature of the block books, Solomon’s work strictly adheres to the general intent of the Biblia Pauperum in harmonizing the Old and New Testaments – visualizing the typological correspondence between the Testaments. As per the subjects and their source, in the central panel we find incidents from the life of Christ; but the two parallels from Old Testament in the adjacent left and right panels are all not from historical books and the prophets, respectively as in the original Biblia Pauperum of the middle ages. In fact, only one of the ten (right panel in this work) is from the Prophets. We see a frequent drawing from the Pentateuch – four incidents about Eve, and another three incidents about Moses, apart from individual incidents.
B) An Analytical Commentary
The present commentary on each of the works is preceded by copies of the original works in color by the artist (except for one as mentioned earlier), to aid ready reference for the reader. The scripture texts from which the artist drew his picturizations and reflections are also given for reader’s further pursuit and study. Likewise, the artist’s poetic meditations are furnished for reader’s appreciation and further reflection. In fact, the luster of his works springs forth from the instant and spontaneous reflections of the artist in simple verse.
The first two of the following tri-part works interestingly portray stories of Bible women. In the first work, we see Eve, and Hagar as types for the Woman at the Well as antitype. In the second work, we will see Eve and Ruth as types for the virgin Mary being antitype. Solomon Raj emerged as a champion of women’s cause – in his art as well as in his writings. As early as 1999, he made a ten-part series of woodcuts on “Jesus’ Encounter with Women”, which was published in Germany with accompanying meditations composed in German by Jorg Dantscher, a Jesuit Provincial.
Solomon’s fascination for the themes of woman is obvious, and his art works on the ‘Woman at the Well’ are countless in diverse media of art. His most popular ‘yakshagana’ (dance-drama), Kim Kartavyam portrays the story of the Samaritan Woman, demonstrating the two ‘Love Commands’ of the Law. Recently, I came across a rare (Batik) scene from the Art of Solomon Raj in Dr. York Muller's Collection. Unlike any other work on this theme, we see ‘Women at the Well’ - five other women along with the Samaritan Woman - as part of the fruit of Jesus' Meeting the Woman at the Well!
One of his icons of later years with women in burial preparation depicts the place Solomon gives for women in the over-all plan of God. While the Synoptic writers mention of Joseph of Arimathea, John adds Nicodemus in the narrative. The women the Synoptics mention are a few, but “Solomon imagines that those and other women must have joined, helping these men in the ritual. Solomon beautifully portrays this rare scenario of Jesus’ burial preparation with two men and twelve women. Interestingly, there is a yellow halo around the heads of all – male as well as female”
1. The Flying Eve
Genesis 3:6-7 St. John 4:1-15 Genesis 16:7-15
Eve – I will never find fault with her
She is no seducer but a loving wife
Who shared with her husband
What she ate.
Her sin is disobedience,
She did not know,
Just like the other woman,
also in the Bible
that she was a sinner –
till she met Jesus at the well.
In the first triptych, we find ‘Eve’s Fall’ and ‘Hagar and Ishmael’ from the Book of Genesis as types for the centerpiece, which is the antitype from the New Testament - ‘Jesus and Woman at the Well’. The poetic imagination of Solomon probably reached its peak, in the title, ‘The Flying Eve’ and so was his artistic imagination in depicting Eve – with one hand picking the fruit from the tree, and the simultaneous handing of fruit to Adam with another hand. She seems to be flying with the seemingly lucrative lure from the Enemy. The artist sees in Eve ‘a loving wife who shared with her husband what she ate’, and sympathetically affirms her for this act of love. However, he categorically states – ‘Her sin is disobedience’! Though, he did not write anything about Hagar in the matching meditation, by the depiction of her plight in the desert, Solomon emerges as a champion of the marginalized! As Prof. Zersen aptly points out, “the image portraying Hagar’s and Ishmael’s plight in the desert assures that no woman is ever forgotten by God”.
In all these three episodes, we see God coming to the plight of humans, and providing for the need – directly in the first type, through the angel in the second type, and through the incarnation in the antitype. Both the types in this Triptych are from the first book of the Pentateuch.
2. Knowledge and Obedience
Genesis 3:1-4 St. Luke 1:26-38 Ruth 2:1-10
So said Satan to Eve:
God’s Word is not true.
On the day you eat this fruit
you will be like God
to know the good and the evil.
Thus knowledge –
it was what Eve desired
but not obedience.
But Mary, the village girl
opted for obedience.
I am the Lord’s handmaid, she said,
and let His will be done.
So she became the mother of God.
It is not knowledge that is vital;
knowledge man has in plenty,
but obedience is hard to learn.
We see ‘Eve in the Garden’, in the first type from the Pentateuch, obeying not God but the Serpent - with an ambition of obtaining knowledge by eating the forbidden fruit. “Thus knowledge – it was what Eve desired but not obedience.” We see the contrast in the other type from Historical Books; we see ‘Ruth Rejoicing’ for the favor granted in response to her obedience to the wise counsel of her mother-in-law. She not only received the reward of the day, but also the reward for a life-time – becoming the wife of her kinsman-redeemer, Boaz. The centerpiece, which is the antitype, depicts the ‘Annunciation’ where we see absolute obedience of virgin Mary to what she received from God through the angel – in spite of alarming hesitations and looming perils of infamy and disgrace. We see rich symbolism in this antitype. The hand of God is depicted above Mary, taking care of every precarious situation incumbent with her submission. How ‘Mary, the village girl of Nazareth, opted for obedience’ is ever extolled and she was forever called ‘the Blessed among women’.
When Satan challenged Eve that “God’s word is not true”, she believed the lies of Satan. Mary, when she was challenged in her mind that what she heard was impossible, she resisted the lies and trusted the word of God, spoken to her through the angel. Ruth likewise, trusted the word of God, spoken to her through human agency, and proved the truth by her obedience.
3. Joseph Sold
Genesis 37:21-28 St. Luke 24:1-9 Jonah 1:1-12
Men and women are born
and they die.
But there is one who died
and rose again – Jesus.
Like Joseph who was thrown into the well
but pulled out of the well again.
And Jonah the prophet
who was swallowed by a big whale
and delivered again to live.
Christ is the truth
and the other two are symbols
for us to see and understand.
This is the only triptych with types from the Pentateuch and the Prophets, according to the usual norms of the bocks book, Biblia Pauperum. The artist draws a wonderful comparison between the types and the antitype. Joseph and Brothers at the Well are seen in the first type, while Jonah and the whale are seen in the other type on the right. The common theme drawn from these stories is a release from the pathetic status they were thrown into. Joseph who was thrown into the well to die, was pulled out of the well again. And Jonah the prophet was swallowed by a big whale but was delivered again to live. As in the types, the centerpiece portrays Jesus who was buried in the grave, but the grave could not hold Him. He rose alive on the third day. Solomon in his reflection proclaims the interesting fact: “Men and women are born / and they die. / But there is one who died / and rose again – Jesus.
Solomon brings out another message that there are symbols in the Scriptures, but “Christ is the truth”, and he lucidly states the purpose of the symbols in the process of communication: “for us to see and understand”.
4. The Red Sea
Numbers 13:23-24 St. Luke 3:21-22 Exodus 14:21-22
Water – there was water all around
when the people of God crossed
the Red Sea – long ago.
High walls of water on their
right and their left;
high like they touched the sky –
Water above, water below –
But they walked on dry land.
Did anybody know this wonder –
when John the Baptist
called the people around and said,
come, and let your sins be washed away
Water and fire became great symbols
of regeneration and new life.
This triptych, named the Red Sea, depicts the relationship between the people of God walking on the dry land, when the Red Sea parted, as seen in the type on the right, and the waters of Baptism in the antitype. Paul also refers to this in his first epistle to Corinthians (10:1-2). It was a wonder, when the Israelites walked on dry land as the Sea parted with high waters on their right and their left and water above and water below. Solomon calls baptism also a wonder – the wonder of going into the waters – with water above and water below and water all around. The call of John the Baptist, “come, and let your sins be washed away in water” is echoed in the closing lines of the reflection. Is it the water that washes our sins, or is it the blood of Jesus that cleanses us from all sin? Is there more to baptism than our initial understanding of the concept? This gives room for more reflection and more intimacy with the One who cleanses from all our sins. Anyway, “Water and fire became great symbols of regeneration and new life.”
The first type on the left, probably with Caleb and Joshua, is of course part of the story of Exodus, as the other type on the right. But the comparison or relationship of the first type with the other two pieces is not clear. It is like an open option for the viewer or the reader to see whether any new light may be shed upon it. The only insight that can be gleaned may be stated as follows: Just as the people of God enjoyed the fruit of the land they inherited after they crossed the Red Sea, so also the children of God after they passed from judgment to life through Baptism shall bear fruit, more fruit and fruit that remains.
5. Creating Eve
Genesis 2:21-23 St. Mark 11:1-11 Genesis 2:8-17
God took a handful of clay
and made Adam the man
by breathing into him
But to make Eve
God took a rib from Adam’s side
and thus Eve came to be -
Man and woman
are not the same –
Man without woman
Is man with a missing rib.
As in the first Triptych in the series, both the types in this Triptych are from the first book of the Pentateuch. But here both are about Eve – about the birth of Eve, and about Adam and Eve in the Garden. The antitype in the center is about Palm Sunday Procession. There is no significant correlation either between the types or between the types and the antitype. Even in the accompanying reflection, no reference is made to the antitype. As the title is named ‘Creating Eve’ the picture in the first type graphically shows how the woman was made out of the body and bone of Adam. No such graphic depiction of the creation account is usually seen. The initial lines in the reflection try to demonstrate how man and woman were created different, and in a different manner. An interesting pronouncement is made, though, in the concluding lines about the basic difference: “Man and woman / are not the same – / Man without woman / Is man with a missing rib.
The triumphal entry of Jesus into Jerusalem had been a favorite theme in the art of Solomon Raj. But we do not see any association between this scene in the antitype with either of the types. The Son of Man in the antitype, it maybe observed, is human, but was born in a different and unique way; He was born of woman, unlike all the humans. Is He a ‘man with a missing rib’? Would it ensue in a theological debate?
6. Moses and the Rock
Numbers 20:10-11 St. Mark 14:32-41 Exodus 3:2-4
Rocks stand still and
rivers rise and flow.
Bushes may burn and give us a message.
But it was only one rock
of the mountainside which Moses hit
that opened its belly to spill water
to satiate people’s thirst.
And it is only the living water
that quenches mankind’s thirst
for ever and ever.
The living water that flowed out
from the Son of God
in the garden of Gethsemane,
as He prayed pouring
his heart out in agony
preparing to die on the cross.
The two types in this triptych, though taken from two different books of the Pentateuch, present only a single hero, who was Moses – though not in a chronological order. We see Moses with horns – in either picture! We also see Moses in the first type of Triptych 10, portrayed with horns again. Solomon was well aware of the historic progression of Christian art and themes thereof, and he comfortably adopts some of the important developments in his art. Depiction of Moses with horns was not Solomon’s invention or initiation but an inclination since the Middle Ages. We learn that for hundreds of years, Moses was depicted with ‘horns or beams of light coming out of his head’ by painters and sculptors including Michelangelo. Horns were not always the ‘devil sign’ often associated with. There was a time when they denoted divine power and authority. Ruth Mellinkoff has pointed out that “the metaphorical meaning of horns or horned in the Bible continued the ancient meaning of horns as symbols of honor, divinity, strength, kingship, and power.”
With the two incidents of Moses in the types, Solomon associates Jesus in Gethsemane, and the connecting thread is lucidly laid out in the accompnying verse. Referring to the rocks and bushes, found in the two types, Solomon affirms:
Rocks stand still and
rivers rise and flow.
Bushes may burn and give us a message.
When rocks in God’s creation stand still, Solomon narrates in an enlightening manner that “it was only one rock of the mountainside which Moses hit that opened its belly to spill water to satiate people’s thirst”. From this he draws the correlation with the antitype, with Jesus in Gethsemane in the centerpiece:
And it is only the living water
that quenches mankind’s thirst
for ever and ever.
In the same manner that the waters from one particular rock that Moses struck with his rod satisfied people’s thirst in the wilderness, “the living water that flowed out from the Son of God in the garden of Gethsemane” only can quench mankind’s eternal thirst”.
7. Boy Isaac
Genesis 22:6-8 St. Luke 23:44-48 Genesis 22:9-14
A perfect boy and a willing son
Isaac did not protest
when his father wanted to
sacrifice him to God.
This was in fact a forecast
of the coming event,
when the man Jesus agreed
death on the cross
to do his Father’s will and to
save the creation,
the story came to pass.
Thus Jesus of Nazareth
became the Cosmic Christ.
Both the types in this Triptych also are from the first book of the Pentateuch -respectively depicting Abraham and Isaac going to the Mount Moriah, and Abraham being hindered by the angel from killing Isaac in sacrifice. Isaac, a perfect boy and a willing son, in fact was seen as a perfect type for Jesus, as he did not protest when his father wanted to sacrifice him to God. Solomon thus presented the correlation with the antitype, where “the man Jesus agreed death on the cross to do his Father’s will and to save the creation”.
There is rich symbolism in the antitype, as Jesus was portrayed as ‘the Lamb of God’ offered in sacrifice ‘to save the creation’. We see the symbols of hand and the sun. The hand from above of course symbolizes the hand of God, and the divine help for accomplishment of the divine mission. The sun symbolizes the sun of righteousness. It also reminds one how the sun became dark in the afternoon, when Jesus the Sun of Righteousness gave his life for all mankind. Solomon deliberately extends salvation beyond the mankind, to all the creation. It is in tune with the Mark’s account of the Great Commission: “Go into all the world and preach the gospel to all creation” (16:15).
The last couple of lines in Solomon’s reflection make an allusion to ‘Cosmic Christ’: “Thus Jesus of Nazareth became the Cosmic Christ.” It is pointed out that “the cosmic Christ is a view of Christology which emphasises the extent of Jesus Christ's concern for the cosmos” – with biblical bases found in Colossians, Ephesians, and the prologue to the gospel of John. Paul describes Christ as "the image of the unseen God and the first-born of all creation …”.
8. Three Angels
1 Kings 17:1-7 St. Matthew 26:26-30 Genesis 18:1-5
Once three angels came down
seeking table fellowship
And also a prophet fleeing
to the wilderness was fed by ravens.
He did not know who asked the ravens
to bring him food.
Today we break our bread
and share our cup
with those who are our neighbors
because Christ once did it
with His disciples
and sealed the act as a sacrament.
There is a wonderful correlation between the three pieces in this triptych. In the first type we see God was feeding the Prophet in the midst of famine in a supernatural way. “He did not know who asked the ravens to bring him food.” In the second type we see how the three angels visited Abraham, seeking “table fellowship with mortals.” In the antitype, we see ‘Feeding of Judas’ by Jesus. This is a significant portrait, as we find Judas alone, while the rest of the disciples are with Jesus, standing on the side of Jesus. We see three incidents of sharing of bread:
1) God sharing food and drink through supernatural provision with prophet Elijah;
2) Abraham sharing food with supposedly the three persons of the Godhead; and
3) Jesus sharing Himself with us by means of his broken body and the shed blood.
He even shared the bread and the cup with the one who would betray him shortly.
Solomon draws a new interpretation for our times:
Today we break our bread
and share our cup
with those who are our neighbors.
9. Jacob’s Ladder
Genesis 28:10-14 St. Matthew 4:18-24 Judges 6:11-14
There was a promise –
a promise like it came
to the runaway Jacob.
He saw the rungs of a ladder
reaching high into the skies
on which the holy ones
went up and came down –
Not like Jacob asked for
nor like he ever dreamed.
So also Gideon the mighty man of valor.
When he was busy with
his mundane chores,
he was given a sign.
And the fishermen of Galilee –
Did they know what a
great mission they were
being beckoned for?
In this triptych, we see the dream of Jacob in the first type, and the call of Gideon in the second type. God gives Jacob the runaway a rare revelation:
Not like Jacob asked for
nor like he ever dreamed.
God calls Jacob, and with the call comes a promise. God calls Gideon, and with the call comes a sign. God calls Gideon “When he was busy with his mundane chores”. We see the calling of the disciples in the antitype, in the same manner, when they were engaged with their vocation. The theme that runs in the mind of Solomon - God calls and man responds – is significantly obvious in the call of the disciples. He was thinking of the fishermen of Galilee whether they knew what a great mission they were called for! It so happens often that those who were called by God never grasp the magnitude of the purpose of His calling! None is given revelation of the total accomplishment; only as one follows Him step by step, He would progressively enable in an increasing measure for fulfilling all his purposes.
10. Moses and the Tablets
Exodus 24:12-18 St. Matthew 2:13-15 Genesis 19:12-21
God gave his Holy Law
to his people and they could not
abide by it.
So God had to find another way to save them –
the way of Grace.
And God sent His son Jesus
to the strange land of Egypt –
and like he pulled Lot
and his family from out
of the cursed city –
so he called his son from Egypt
to bear the cross and save humanity.
How can we humans foresee
What God has planned?
In the last triptych of the series, Solomon brings a culmination to his message. To the liberated nation of Israelites, before leading them into a new and free land, He desired for them to adopt a new life unlike in that of slavery. He had to take a long time to take away the slavish mentality of Egypt out of their lives. He had a proposed a new way of life by giving them the Law. Solomon depicts the predicament of the people in the initial lines of his reflection: “God gave his Holy Law / to his people and they could not / abide by it.”
Because of the covenant He made with them to be their God, “God had to find another way to save them – the way of Grace”. So God sent His Son as a Savior, who would die for the sinful mankind - thus correlating the first type and the antitype.
In the other type we see ‘Lot and Wife at Sodom’. It was also thoughtfully correlated to the antitype, as God sent His Son Jesus to the strange land Egypt. At the right time God called His Son from Egypt in fulfilment of the scriptures, just as He pulled Lot and his family out of the cursed city to be saved from the wrath of God. The plans of God are marvelous and mysterious, and Solomon wonders:
How can we humans foresee
What God has planned?
The prime purpose of the medieval technique enshrining Biblia Pauperum was educational and instructional. The necessity of the bygone times, before the invention of printing press, obviously was not outdated. We see a revived interest in knowing about this means of instruction, with its resurrection through the experiment of Solomon Raj reproducing Biblia Pauperum of our times! It was neither the end of it with his work. Almost as an instantaneous inspiration, Fan Pu, a Chinese artist was spurred to launch her work on Biblia Pauperum in papercut innovation. She had worked on this project for four years and published her Biblia Pauperum in 2013. In her work with 30 papercut triptychs, she acknowledges Solomon’s impact upon her creation:
Under the influence of Solomon Raj, I started on my own version of Biblia Pauperum in 2009 … Solomon Raj was a vital inspiration to me when I was designing the format of my Biblia Pauperum, as he was inspired by the original Biblia Pauperum of the Middle Ages … Each block in my pages was matched with a meditation poem, this was also the result of Solomon Raj’s influence. It is impossible to dwell into the deeper meaning of the Biblical truth without meditation. I thank the Lord that the art of Solomon Raj has opened my mind’s eye.
Fr. Joe Ubelmesser interprets the current relevance and utility of this medieval media as a means for meditation, and rightly remarks:
A Biblia Pauperum of our days, however, is not made for unalphabets. It will be rather a means for meditation. We all have become people of the eye much more than people of the ear … also our soul looks out for a place where the eye and the mind can rest for a while in meditation. It is looking out for a picture where it can follow the finger of the Lord, when he is pointing the right way to his disciple.
Dr. B. S. Moses Kumar is an accomplished writer and author of several books, including Setting Stones, The Religious Poetry of Gerard Manley Hopkins: A Theological Perspective (his doctoral dissertation for Ph.D. in English Literature), Soliloquies in Solitude, and Incarnation of the Gospel in Indian Culture: A Study of the Art and Poetry of Pulidindi Solomon Raj (his doctoral dissertation for Ph.D. in Theology). He has written many articles on Church history, and on the art and poetry of the P. Solomon Raj. He is President Emeritus of Hyderabad Bible College, India. His other two works on Solomon Raj’s Lukan and Johannine series of art are already on ArtWay.eu.
 See the following websites:
 Solomon Raj, P. : Foreword to Biblia Pauperum: The Poor Man’s Bible, (Bangalore: Asian Trading
Corporation), 2008: 10
 Munchen: 2000
 Moses Kumar, B.S. : Incarnation of the Gospel in Indian Culture: A Study of the Art and Poetry of
Pulidindi Solomon Raj, Delhi: Christian World Imprints, 2019, 138-139.
 Fan Pu: Biblia Pauperum, Tao Fong Shan Christian Centre Ltd., Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong, 2013, 13-15.
 Joe Ubelmesser: “The Word of God Translated into Images to Contemplate”, In P. Solomon Raj:
Biblia Pauperum: The Poor Man’s Bible, Bangalore: Asian Trading Corporation, 2008, 28.